After many problems with the setup (sometimes losing connectivity, working only on certain WiFi networks etc.) I've finally discovered a steady, working combination:
- under Hyper-V, don't create an External switch - create an Internal one
- go to your WiFi adapter settings and enable connection sharing and share it with your newly created virtual adapter like pictured below:
- again under Hyper-V settings, try adding a Legacy Network Adapter instead of a standard one.
You still might have to wait for a network configuration process to finish, but generally speaking, this has worked for me (and - by the way - it's a Linux kernel bug for which there is a patch somewhere if you search for it long enough :) )...