I thought this one should be very easy to do, however it doesn't have to be - therefore I've decided to address it with an(other) article.
The main problem seems to be the fact that there are older installation media (still) available - and the other one is related to the fact that the newest media (at the time of writing, the Cumulative Update 11) (still) has some niggles: namely, it's missing some additional components (no matter whether you have checked the option to install missing Windows features and installation updates on the installation start).
Anyway, in order to get your environment running as quickly as possible, the following should be done (installation-wise - I won't get into setting up the AD etc. here):
- update your existing Windows Server 2016 installation;
- get the latest installation media for Exchange Server 2016 (CU 11, at the moment of writing this article);
- before you start the installation, install .NET Framework 4.7.1;
- install Visual C++ Redistributable Packages for Visual Studio 2013 also;
- install Microsoft Unified Communications Managed API 4.0, Core Runtime (64-bit) - this one shouldn't be needed for a Edge Transport role server(s);
- now start the installation and make sure you check any (other) options for installing other Windows features and installation updates.
The installation should now continue without any errors (if you encounter an AD Topology Service not running at the end of it, just restart the whole server, start the service manually and re-run the setup - it should now repair / finish the installation).